What is prime editing?


Prime editing is a gene editing technology* with huge potential for applications in plants.

It has two components: (1) PE and (2) pegRNA.

PE refers to prime editor that in turn has (a) Cas9 nickase (Cas9n) that is a mutant protein that can cut only one strand of DNA, and (b) Reverse transcriptase (RT) that is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase and an enzyme that performs required editing.

pegRNA refers to prime editing guide RNA that in turn has (a) gRNA target sequence, (b) Primer binding sequence (PBS, ~8-16 nt), and (c) RT template with desired edited RNA sequence (red).

It has five basic steps, including (1) formation of pegRNA::PE complex; (2) pegRNA guides and takes the complex to target DNA, and complex binds to target DNA, i.e., cas9n nicks a strand; (3) Cas9n cuts DNA on one strand; (4) incorporation of desired sequence into target DNA by reverse transcription of RNA; (5) incorporation of edited strand with cleavage of original DNA with cellular endonuclease, and (6) repairing of unedited strand according to newly edited sequence.

Zusammenfassung in deutscher Sprache (Summary in German language)
Die Gen-Editing-Technologie bietet ein großes Potenzial für Anwendungen in Pflanzen.
Bei dieser Technologie komplexiert ein Prime Editor mit der Prime Editing Guide-RNA (pegRNA) und bindet an die Ziel-DNA, in der die gewünschte Sequenz hinzugefügt wird.

Further Reading:

CRISPR Gene Editing: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology) a.l.*

Genome Editing and Engineering: From TALENs, ZFNs and CRISPRs to Molecular Surgery a.l.*

Precision Medicine, CRISPR, and Genome Engineering: Moving from Association to Biology and Therapeutics a.l.*

*a.l.=affiliate link

Usman Zafar Paracha

Usman Zafar Paracha is a sort of entrepreneur. He is the author of "Color Atlas of Statistics", and the owner of an Android game "Faily Rocket."