Antibodies and cancer therapy – Some research ideas

Researchers have found that administration of antibodies along with chemotherapy is effective in cancer treatment but more important is the finding that the timing of antibody administration is more important to consider in clinical studies of the combination therapies.

Among the researchers, T-cells are considered as the main kind of work to therapeutically change the endogenous antitumour immunity.

Many of the receptors for B7 family members have not been identified yet. B7 proteins are the types of peripheral membrane protein present on activated antigen presenting cells (APC) that on pairing with either a CD28 or CD152 (CTLA-4) surface protein on a T cell, can result in a costimulatory signal to increase or decrease the activity of a MHC-TCR (major histocompatibility complex-T cell receptor) signal between the APC and the T cell, respectively.

You can find some of the T-cell receptors that are still unknown in the figure below:

Depicted are various ligand–receptor interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that regulate the T cell response to antigen (Credit: Drew M. Pardoll/Nature Reviews Cancer)
Depicted are various ligand–receptor interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that regulate the T cell response to antigen (Credit: Drew M. Pardoll/Nature Reviews Cancer)

The specific signaling pathways that help CTLA4 in blockage of T-cell activation are still not fully known.

Researchers have found that tumors grow more slowly in A2aR, (also known as Adora2a) the ligand of which is adenosine,-knockout mice and tumor vaccines worked effectively in such mice. A2aR can be inhibited by blocking adenosine binding but such drugs have not been studied clinically in patients with cancer.

References:

Drew M. Pardoll (2012). The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy Nature Reviews Cancer DOI: 10.1038/nrc3239

Sarah Seton-Rogers (2012). Immunotherapy: Combinations that work Nature Reviews Cancer DOI: 10.1038/nrc3250

Usman Zafar Paracha

Usman Zafar Paracha is a sort of entrepreneur. He is the author of "Color Atlas of Statistics", and the owner of an Android game "Faily Rocket."