Recommendation statement and evidence review on primary care interventions and drug abuse published in Annals of Internal Medicine.
Annals of Internal Medicine
The United States Preventive Services published its final recommendation statement on primary care interventions to prevent or reduce illicit drug and nonmedical pharmaceutical use in children and adolescents in Annals of Internal Medicine.
The USPSTF (U.S. Preventive Services Task Force) conducted a systematic review of published evidence on interventions to help children and adolescents who have never used drugs to remain abstinent and interventions to help children and adolescents who are using drugs but do not meet the criteria for a substance use disorder to reduce or stop their use.
The Task Force concluded that there is not enough evidence to determine what primary care professionals can do to prevent or reduce drug use in children and adolescents under the age of 18. Nearly one in 10 American adolescents use illegal drugs or prescription or over-the-counter drugs for nonmedical purposes, which can have serious health, educational, and social consequences. An estimated 150,000 emergency room visits in 2011 were attributed to illicit or nonmedical pharmaceutical drug use among adolescents.
Pre-school and school-aged children who spent more time watching television got less sleep.
Marcella Marinelli, M.Sc., Ph.D., of the Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Barcelona, Spain, and colleagues.
Sleep is important and prior research has suggested that television viewing can cause irregular sleep habits. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended in 2009 that children under 2 years avoid exposure to any media and that for older children time be limited to one to two hours per day.
MIT scientists identify a plasma plume that naturally protects the earth against solar storms.
The Earth’s magnetic field, or magnetosphere, stretches from the planet’s core out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emitted by the Sun. For the most part, the magnetosphere acts as a shield to protect the Earth from this high-energy solar activity.
But when this field comes into contact with the Sun’s magnetic field — a process called “magnetic reconnection” — powerful electrical currents from the Sun can stream into Earth’s atmosphere, whipping up geomagnetic storms and space weather phenomena that can affect high-altitude aircraft, as well as astronauts on the International Space Station.
Now scientists at MIT and NASA have identified a process in the Earth’s magnetosphere that reinforces its shielding effect, keeping incoming solar energy at bay.
Astronomers at the University of Michigan have, for the first time, directly measured the spin of a distant supermassive black hole.
The high-energy lasers at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) employ exquisite pulse-shaping control to achieve ramp compression pressures to 50 Mbar (15x center of earth pressure) and higher. Ramp compression, contrasted to shock compression, keeps sample temperatures low and allows the study of extreme-density compressed-matter.
Using these capabilities, researchers will gain experimental access to giant-planet interior states and the phase space relevant to exotic crystal structures predicted by modern theory. Early experiments are underway, and in Denver Jon Eggert of LLNL will present some of the first results of extreme-compression experiments, which show the ability to compress solid iron and tantalum to nearly 10 Mbar, carbon to 50 Mbar and the first x-ray diffraction done on NIF.