Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adolescents appears to be associated with atypical connectivity in the brain involving the systems that help people infer what others are thinking and understand the meaning of others’ actions and emotions.
Inna Fishman, Ph.D, of San Diego State University, California, and colleagues,
The ability to navigate and thrive in complex social systems is commonly impaired in ASD, a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting as many as 1 in 88 children.
How the Study Was Conducted:
The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate connectivity in two brain networks involved in social processing: theory of mind (ToM, otherwise known as the mentalizing system, which allows an individual to infer what others are thinking, their beliefs, their intentions) and the mirror neuron system (MNS, which allows people to understand the meanings and actions of others by simulating and replicating them). The study included 25 adolescents with ASD (between the ages of 11 and 18) and 25 typically developing adolescents.
A telephone-based collaborative care model helped manage depression and anxiety, and improved health-related quality of life in patients with heart disease.
JAMA Internal Medicine
Jeff C. Huffman, M.D., of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, and colleagues.
Depression following acute cardiac conditions is common and generalized anxiety and panic disorders occur at higher rates in patients with heart conditions. Depression and anxiety are determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Collaborative care (CC) models use nonphysician care managers to coordinate treatment recommendations between mental health professionals and primary care physicians. There has been limited use of CC interventions among patients hospitalized for cardiac conditions.
One in three intensive care survivors develop depression that typically manifests as physical symptoms
A third of intensive care patients develop depression that typically manifests as physical, or somatic, symptoms such as weakness, appetite change, and fatigue, rather than psychological symptoms, according to one of the largest studies to investigate the mental health and functional outcomes of survivors of critical care, published in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine.
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
The study suggests that intensive care unit (ICU) survivors could be three times more likely to experience depression than the general population, and that depression is four times more common than post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after critical illness.
“Considering that each year, at least 5 million individuals are admitted to ICU in North America alone—more than are diagnosed with cancer—and about 80% survive, it’s a significant public health issue”*, explains study leader Dr James Jackson, psychologist and assistant professor of medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the USA.
Fitting children with mild to severe hearing loss (HL) with hearing aids (HAs) appears to be associated with better speech and language development.
JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery
J. Bruce Tomblin, Ph.D., of the University of Iowa, Iowa City, and colleagues.
Poor communication skills at the end of the preschool years can affect social, academic and work success later in life. Hearing loss in childhood is a contributor to poor speech and language development. HAs can enhance speech and language development.
Parental monitoring of the time children spend watching television, playing video games and being online can be associated with more sleep, improved school performance and better behavior by the children.
Douglas A. Gentile, Ph.D., of Iowa State University, Ames, and colleagues.
Previous research suggests high levels of screen time are associated with less sleep, attention problems and lower academic progress.