A new meta-analysis, published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology journal, concludes that there is no evidence to suggest that vitamin D supplements prevent falls, and that ongoing trials to test this theory are unlikely to change this result.
The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
The study, by Dr Mark Bolland of the University of Auckland, New Zealand, and colleagues, analysed findings from 20 randomised controlled trials which tested the potential of vitamin D supplements to reduce falls, in a total of 29535 people. The findings show that supplements do not reduce falls by 15% or more, meaning that the amount that vitamin D supplementation reduces fall risk at a population level is very low.
Falls can be devastating for older people, and strategies to reduce fall risk are urgently needed as the global population ages. The results of trials that have investigated the ability of vitamin D to prevent falls—and those of previous meta-analyses—have been mixed. It is unclear how vitamin D supplements might prevent falls but, until now, there has been enough positive evidence to support its recommendation by some health organisations.
- Marijuana use may result in heart-related complications in young and middle-aged adults.
- Nearly 2 percent of the health complications from marijuana use reported were cardiovascular related.
- A quarter of these complications resulted in death, according to a French study.
Journal of the American Heart Association
Marijuana use may result in cardiovascular-related complications — even death — among young and middle-aged adults, according to a French study reported in the Journal of the American Heart Association.
“In prior research, we identified several remarkable cases of cardiovascular complications as the reasons for hospital admission of young marijuana users,” said Émilie Jouanjus, Pharm.D., Ph.D., lead author of the study and a medical faculty member at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse in Toulouse, France. “This unexpected finding deserved to be further analyzed, especially given that the medicinal use of marijuana has become more prevalent and some governments are legalizing its use.”
The availability of free medication samples in dermatology offices appears to change prescribing practices for acne, a common condition for which free samples are often available.
Michael P. Hurley, M.S., and colleagues from the Stanford University School of Medicine, California.
Free drug samples provided by pharmaceutical companies are widely available in dermatology practices.
How the Study Was Conducted:
The authors investigated prescribing practices for acne vulgaris and rosacea. Data for the study were obtained from a nationally representative sample of dermatologists in the National Disease and Therapeutic Index (NDTI), a survey of office-based U.S. physicians, and from an academic medical center where free drug samples were not available.
Over 20 years after the fatal fialuridine trial, a study published this week in PLOS Medicine demonstrates that mice with humanized livers recapitulate the drug’s toxicity. The work suggests that this mouse model should be added to the repertoire of tools used in preclinical screening of drugs for liver toxicity before they are given to human participants in clinical trials.
A retrospective analysis by the US National Academy of Sciences of all preclinical fialuridine toxicity tests, which included studies in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys, concluded that the available animal data provided no indication that the drug would cause liver failure in humans. Working on a mouse model in which approximately 90% of the animal’s liver cells are replaced by human liver cells, Jeffrey Glenn and Gary Peltz, from Stanford University, USA, and colleagues now show that it is possible to detect the toxicity of fialuridine, and possibly other drugs that poison human liver cells.
A new delirium severity score proves accurate for predicting important clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients.
Annals of Internal Medicine
Delirium is common among hospitalized patients and is associated with poor outcomes. The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is a standardized, validated measure that is widely used to screen for the presence of delirium but not its severity.