Scientists invent kidney dialysis machine for babies and safely treat newborn with multiple organ failure in world first breakthrough


CARPEDIEM machine in use (© Claudio Ronco)
CARPEDIEM machine in use (© Claudio Ronco)

Main Points:

Italian scientists have developed a miniaturised kidney dialysis machine capable of treating the smallest babies, and have for the first time used it to safely treat a newborn baby with multiple organ failure. This technology has the potential to revolutionise the treatment of infants with acute kidney injury, according to new research published in The Lancet.

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The Lancet

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The new continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) machine—named CARPEDIEM (Cardio-Renal Pediatric Dialysis Emergency Machine)—was created to overcome the problems of existing dialysis machines that are only designed for adults and have to be adapted for use in newborns and small infants. Read More …

Children with Glomerular Kidney Disease More Likely to have Hypertension as Adults

Main Points:

Chicago – Men who as children had glomerular disease, a disorder of the portion of the kidney that filters blood and one that usually resolves with time, were more likely than men without childhood glomerular disease to have high blood pressure as an adult, according to a study in the March 19 issue of JAMA.

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Glomerular disease was defined for this study as glomerulonephritis or nephrotic syndrome (both are kidney disorders). Most children who develop glomerular disease have a favorable prognosis with complete resolution of all signs and symptoms. Yet the long-term complications of resolved childhood glomerular disease are incompletely understood, according to background information in the article.

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Anti-Coagulant Treatment For Atrial Fibrillation Does Not Worsen Outcomes for Patients With Kidney Disease

Main Points:

Chicago – Although some research has suggested that the use of the anticoagulant warfarin for atrial fibrillation among patients with chronic kidney disease would increase the risk of death or stroke, a study that included more than 24,000 patients found a lower l-year risk of the combined outcomes of death, heart attack or stroke without a higher risk of bleeding, according to a study in the March 5 issue of JAMA.

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Juan Jesus Carrero, Ph.D., of the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, and colleagues examined outcomes associated with warfarin treatment in relation to kidney function among patients with established cardiovascular disease and atrial fibrillation. Using data from a Swedish registry, the study included survivors of a heart attack with atrial fibrillation and known measures of serum creatinine (n = 24,317; a substance used to measure kidney function), including 21.8 percent who were prescribed warfarin at discharge.

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ICU Patients with acute kidney injury show high mortality rates and elevated urinary protein levels at 4-year follow up

In 4 years of follow up of 1464 participants in the randomized controlled trial Randomised Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Levels of RRT (RENAL) study, Martin Gallagher (The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, Australia) and colleagues found that patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) in an intensive care unit (ICU) who require renal replacement therapy (RRT; hemodialysis combined with hemofiltration) do not benefit from higher intensity RRT. At a median of 43.9 months follow up, mortality (63% in the low intensity and 63% in the high intensity group), as well as quality of life among those who survived, were the same in both groups. Albuminuria (elevated protein levels in urine, signifying persistent kidney injury) was common among survivors and with equal rates in both groups (40% in the low intensity and 44% in the high intensity group). Read More …

“Smart Stethoscope” to monitor kidney stone therapy

Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy machineScientists have developed “smart stethoscope” that could help to monitor the progress and effectiveness of the kidney stone therapy.

This research has been done by researchers from the University of Southampton and their collaborators, and has been published online in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society A.

One of the favored procedures for the removal of kidney stones is lithotripsy. It is the medical fragmentation of a stone in the urinary system or gallbladder with the help of ultrasound shock waves, so that the pieces of stone could easily pass out of the body through urine or dissolved by drug. However, the difficulty occurs in the process of checking the stones in the body i.e. whether the stones broke and procedure has been completed or not.

With the help of this new “smart stethoscope” physicians could check whether the treatment for kidney stones work or not. This stethoscope is placed on the patient’s skin after shock wave treatment for kidney stones and it listens to the echoes reverberating around the body after the shock wave hits the stone. Read More …

Kidney transplant could increase the chances of cancer; Research

Kidney transplantResearchers have found that kidney transplant could result in increased chances of cancer.

This study has been conducted by Italian researchers and published online in the European Journal of Cancer.

Researchers in this study worked on 7,217 kidney transplant recipients, in whom the transplantation was done in the years between 1997 and 2007, and followed up until 2009.

Researchers found that 395 patients were diagnosed with de novo cancers including Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD), particularly non-Hodgkin’ lymphoma (NHL), lung, kidney and prostate as the most common types.

If we consider the geographical distribution, researchers have reported that the kidney transplant recipients from Southern Italy have decreased chances of kidney cancer and solid tumors while they are at increased risk of Kaposi’s sarcoma as compared to the recipients born in Northern Italy. Read More …

Racial dissimilarities may affect the Kidney transplant access; Research

Transplanted kidneyResearchers have found that black patients of kidney problem i.e. end stage renal disease (ESRD) had a 59% reduced rate of kidney transplant as compared to white patients in a southeastern Emory Transplant Center.

This research has been conducted by Rachel Patzer, PhD, of Emory University in Atlanta, and colleagues, and published online in January 10 issue of the American Journal of Transplantation.

Researchers worked on 2291 patients at Emory transplant center as well as those from the United States Renal Data System and the United Network for Organ Sharing, from 2005 to 2007 followed through May 2010, and found “racial disparities” in access to transplant evaluation, referral, wait-listing and eventual transplant. “Of 2291 patients, 64.9% were black, the mean age was 49.4 years and 33.6% lived in poor neighborhoods.” Among them 57.3% were male and 16.1% were without any health insurance coverage. Read More …

Approval of new medicinal agent for kidney transplant patients

In order to prevent acute rejection in adult patients, who have had a kidney transplant, FDA approved a medicinal agent i.e. belatacept (brand name: Nulojix) on June 15, 2011.

The drug is helpful for kidney transplant patients, if it is used with other immunosuppressants such as corticosteroids, mycophenolate mofetil and basiliximab. (Immunosuppressants are those drugs which cause reduction of immunity of the body). Read More …

Research ideas about Hypertension by Faizan Malik

(Following article contains research ideas about the possible causes of Hypertension and are contributed by Faizan Malik. He is one of the most talented students of Hajvery University having a very good research mind.)

Primary and Secondary Hypertension

A. Primary or “Essential” Hypertension

1. Etiology – unknown

2. Accounts for approximately 90% of hypertension

3. Onset typically in the fifth or sixth decade of life

4. Strong family history – 70-80% positive family history Read More …