Posts Tagged ‘disease’

Vitamin D supplements have little effect on risk of falls in older people

Main Points:

A new meta-analysis, published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology journal, concludes that there is no evidence to suggest that vitamin D supplements prevent falls, and that ongoing trials to test this theory are unlikely to change this result.

Published in:

The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology

Study Further:

The study, by Dr Mark Bolland of the University of Auckland, New Zealand, and colleagues, analysed findings from 20 randomised controlled trials which tested the potential of vitamin D supplements to reduce falls, in a total of 29535 people. The findings show that supplements do not reduce falls by 15% or more, meaning that the amount that vitamin D supplementation reduces fall risk at a population level is very low.

Falls can be devastating for older people, and strategies to reduce fall risk are urgently needed as the global population ages. The results of trials that have investigated the ability of vitamin D to prevent falls—and those of previous meta-analyses—have been mixed. It is unclear how vitamin D supplements might prevent falls but, until now, there has been enough positive evidence to support its recommendation by some health organisations.

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Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by saypeople - April 24, 2014 at 5:01 am

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Rural microbes could boost city dwellers’ health

Main Points:

The greater prevalence of asthma, allergies and other chronic inflammatory disorders among people of lower socioeconomic status might be due in part to their reduced exposure to the microbes that thrive in rural environments, according to a new scientific paper.

Published in:

Clinical & Experimental Immunology

Study Further:

The article, published in the journal Clinical & Experimental Immunology, argues that people living in urban centers who have less access to green spaces may be more apt to have chronic inflammation, a condition caused by immune system dysfunction.

When our immune systems are working properly, they trigger inflammation to fight off dangerous infections, but the inflammation disappears when the infection is gone. However, a breakdown in immune system function can cause a low level of inflammation to persist indefinitely. Such chronic inflammation can cause a host of health disorders.

“Chronic inflammation can lead to all kinds of problems from irritable bowel syndrome to asthma to allergies and even depression,” said Christopher Lowry, an associate professor in the University of Colorado Boulder’s Department of Integrative Physiology and a co-author of the paper. “The rise of chronic inflammation and these associated disorders, especially among people living in the cities of developed countries, is troubling.”

The two other article co-authors are Graham Rook of UCL (University College London) and Charles Raison of the University of Arizona. Read more…

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by saypeople - April 23, 2014 at 5:16 pm

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Specialized Ambulance Improves Treatment Time For Stroke

Main Points:

Using an ambulance that included a computed tomography (CT) scanner, point-of-care laboratory, telemedicine connection and a specialized prehospital stroke team resulted in decreased time to treatment for ischemic stroke, according to a study in the April 23/30 issue of JAMA, a neurology theme issue.

Published in:

JAMA

Study Further:

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. In acute ischemic stroke, thrombolysis (dissolving of blood clots) using intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the treatment of choice after excluding bleeding in the brain by imaging. Past studies have shown time-dependent benefits of tPA, with early treatment associated with better outcomes. Apart from delayed patient presentation, management inside and outside of the hospital contributes to treatment delays. Recent data from the United States indicate that less than 30 percent of patients have a door-to-needle time for receiving tPA within the recommended 60 minutes. A recent study reported time-savings for 12 tPA administrations performed in a special ambulance with a CT scanner and laboratory. Little is known about the overall effects of specialized ambulances for treating patients with stroke, according to background information in the article.

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Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by saypeople - at 1:00 am

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Study Examines Effectiveness of Two Medications for Treating Epileptic Seizures In Children

Main Points:

Although some studies have suggested that the drug lorazepam may be more effective or safer than the drug diazepam in treating a type of epileptic seizures among children, a randomized trial finds that lorazepam is not better at stopping seizures compared to diazepam, according to a study in the April 23/30 issue of JAMA, a neurology theme issue.

Published in:

JAMA

Study Further:

Status epilepticus is a prolonged epileptic seizure or seizures that occurs approximately 10,000 times in children annually in the United States. Rapid control of status epilepticus is essential to avoid permanent injury and life-threatening complications such as respiratory failure. The Food and Drug Administration has approved diazepam, but not lorazepam, for the treatment of status epilepticus in children. Studies involving lorazepam have shown mixed results, according to background information in the article.

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Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by saypeople - at 1:00 am

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Medication Helps Improve Vision for Patients With Neurological Disorder

Main Points:

In patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and mild vision loss, the use of the drug acetazolamide, along with a low-sodium weight-reduction diet, resulted in modest improvement in vision, compared with diet alone, according to a study in the April 23/30 issue of JAMA, a neurology theme issue.

Published in:

JAMA

Study Further:

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder primarily of overweight women of childbearing age, characterized by increased intracranial pressure with its associated signs and symptoms, including debilitating headaches and vision loss. Acetazolamide is commonly used to treat this condition, but strong evidence to support its use is lacking, according to background information in the article.

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Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by saypeople - at 1:00 am

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