Posts Tagged ‘cancer’

Challenges to effective cancer control in China, India, and Russia

Main Point:

New report from global cancer experts outlines barriers to cancer care and recent achievements in the three countries with more than half of the world’s deaths from cancer.

Published in:

The Lancet Oncology

Study Further:

The Lancet Oncology today [Friday 11 April] publishes a major new Commission examining the challenges to effective cancer control in China, India, and Russia – which together experience 46% of all new cancers worldwide, and account for more than half (52%) of all cancer deaths globally.  The Commission was led by Professor Paul Goss, of Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, USA, in collaboration with over 40 leading cancer experts from the regions studied, and across the world.

At the same time, the journal also publishes a three part Series on cancer burden and health systems in India, coordinated by Professor Richard Sullivan, of King’s College London, UK, and with contributions from many of India’s leading cancer experts, including Professor C S Pramesh, of the Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, India, and Professor Mohandas Mallath, of the Tata Medical Center, Kolkata, India.

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Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by saypeople - April 12, 2014 at 2:00 am

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Comparison of Treatments for Advanced Lung Cancer Shows Chemotherapy May Be Best For Certain Patients

Main Points:

Among patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer without a mutation of a certain gene (EGFR), conventional chemotherapy, compared with treatment using epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, was associated with improvement in survival without progression of the cancer, but not with overall survival, according to a study in the April 9 issue of JAMA.

Published in:

JAMA

Study Further:

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the preferred treatment option for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have mutations in the EGFR gene. These drug-sensitive mutations are found in about 10 percent of Western patients and almost 50 percent of Asian patients with NSCLC. However, a majority of patients with advanced NSCLC worldwide do not have tumors with these mutations (known as wild-type [WT]; no mutation detected within the gene). Studies have shown that TKI treatment is better than conventional chemotherapy in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) among patients with these EGFR mutations; it is not clear that EGFR TKIs are as effective as standard chemotherapy in patients without EGFR mutations, according to background information in the article

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Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by saypeople - April 9, 2014 at 1:00 am

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Could controversial Canadian mammography study spark new thinking in the U.S.?

Main Points:

A recent report from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study (CNBSS) concluded that mammography screening does not reduce deaths from breast cancer.

Published in:

Annals of Internal Medicine

Study Further:

The findings refueled the heated debate that began in 2009 when the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended biennial mammography screening for women ages 50 to 74 and individualized screening for younger women.

Two new commentaries being published in Annals of Internal Medicine discuss the findings of the Canadian study and suggest new approaches to studying and thinking about breast cancer.

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Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by saypeople - April 8, 2014 at 2:00 am

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Screening for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Associated with Curative Treatment and Longer Survival in Patients with Cirrhosis

Main Points:

In a systematic review and meta-analysis of 47 studies with 15,158 patients, Amit Singal (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center) and colleagues found that patients with cirrhosis who underwent surveillance (via liver ultrasound with or without measurement of serum alpha fetoprotein) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) had cancers detected at an earlier stage, were more likely to receive curative instead of palliative treatment, and had longer survival. Across all the studies, the pooled 3-year survival rate was 50.8% among the 4735 patients who underwent HCC surveillance, compared to 27.9% among the 6115 patients without prior surveillance (p<0.001).

Published in:

PLOS Medicine

Study Further:

The finding of longer survival persisted after the authors limited their review to studies that took into account lead time bias. Lead time bias, as it applies to this study, is the time between when a disease would normally be diagnosed without screening and when the disease is diagnosed with screening. Detecting disease earlier through screening can sometimes appear to increase survival when instead it only prolongs the time the person has the diagnosis. However, in this case, studies that accounted for lead time bias statistically still found that screening increased survival.  Among the 6 studies that adjusted for lead time bias, those who underwent HCC surveillance had 3-year survival rates of 39.7%, vs. 29.1% among those who did not (p<0.001).

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Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by saypeople - April 2, 2014 at 2:00 am

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Medication Does Not Help Prevent Erectile Dysfunction Following Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

Main Points:

Among men undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer, daily use of the erectile dysfunction drug tadalafil, compared with placebo, did not prevent loss of erectile function, according to a study in the April 2 issue of JAMA.

Published in:

JAMA

Study Further:

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition resulting from many causes, including prostate cancer treatment. An estimated 40 percent of men report ED after radiation therapy, and half of all men use erectile aids following this therapy. Tadalafil is used to treat erectile dysfunction after prostate cancer treatment, but its role as a preventive agent has not been determined, according to background information in the article.

Thomas M. Pisansky, M.D., of the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn., and colleagues with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, randomly assigned 242 men with prostate cancer to receive tadalafil (5 mg) or placebo daily for 24 weeks starting with radiation therapy (either with external radiotherapy [63 percent] or brachytherapy [37 percent]). The study was conducted at 76 sites in the United States and Canada; participants were recruited between November 2009 and February 2012, with follow-up through March 2013.

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Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by saypeople - at 1:00 am

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