Decade-long campaigns to increase public availability and awareness have gone unheeded.
The restricted availability of defibrillators, and poor understanding of how to use them, are helping to boost the number of deaths from heart attacks occurring outside hospitals, suggests a study of one English county, published online in the journal Heart.
This is despite several campaigns to increase the numbers of these life-saving devices in public places, and the acknowledgement of the importance of their role in the English government’s Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes Strategy, published last March, say the authors.
Every minute of delay in administering resuscitation increases the risk of death after a heart attack by between 7% and 10%. Currently, only between 2% and 12% of those who have a heart attack outside hospital live to tell the tale, with the death toll reaching an annual 30,000 across the UK.
Scientists have successfully administered and utilized insulin through mouth in rats and this would be a huge success against diabetes, if the same experiment will successfully be done on humans.
Something about Insulin therapy:
Scientists are working on and improving insulin therapy for diabetes and one of the most optimized way of insulin therapy could be administration through mouth, i.e. oral administration.
The concept of oral insulin is present since 1930s but it is a complicated thing, as insulin, being a protein, quickly destroys after coming in contact with stomach, and it has a huge size making it difficult to be absorbed through bloodstream.
In the present study, scientists worked on the above mentioned problems by packing insulin in tiny packets of lipids (fats) protecting insulin from stomach enzymes and by attaching it to folic acid to activate a transport mechanism, so that its absorption could be improved.
Scientists found that this strategy worked as effectively after oral administration in rats as injected insulin.
“In vivo pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies further revealed almost double hypoglycemia and approximately 20% relative bioavailability in comparison with subcutaneously administered standard insulin solution,” Scientists noted.
Although, the dose entering the bloodstream was small as compared to injected insulin but this newly developed oral formulation helped to control blood-sugar level for more than 18 hours as opposed to 6-8 hours after injection.
“Overall the proposed strategy is expected to contribute significantly in the field of designing ligand-anchored, polyelectrolyte-based stable systems in drug delivery,” Scientists wrote.
Insulin pill may soon be a reality – The Conversation (http://goo.gl/YJrBQM)
Ashish Kumar Agrawal et al. (2013). Improved Stability and Antidiabetic Potential of Insulin Containing Folic Acid Functionalized Polymer Stabilized Multilayered Liposomes Following Oral Administration Biomacromolecules DOI: 10.1021/bm401580k
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