Year 1989 – Cationic lipid-based mRNA delivery to cells in vitro.
Year 1990 – Direct application of mRNA in the expression of encoded proteins after being injected into skeletal muscle of mice.
Year 1993 – mRNA could induce cellular immunity –
First description of a strategy for mRNA-based vaccination.
Year 1995 – mRNA could induce humoral immunity –
First use of mRNA for anti-cancer therapy and as an investigational medicinal product.
Year 1996 – Dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with mRNA were found to be the potent antigen-presenting cells.
Year 1997 – The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved first clinical trial of ex vivo DCs loaded with mRNA in inducing immune response in cancer patients.
Year 2008 – First clinical trial for direct application of mRNA – Vaccination of melanoma patients with total tumor mRNA.
Year 2010 – Intranodal delivery of mRNA transfected DCs eliciting antitumor immunity.
Year 2013 – Acceptance of mRNA as one of the potent investigational medicinal product.
Van Lint, S., Renmans, D., Broos, K., Dewitte, H., Lentacker, I., Heirman, C., Breckpot, K., & Thielemans, K. (2015). The ReNAissanCe of mRNA-based cancer therapy. Expert Rev Vaccines, 14(2), 235-251.
Verbeke, R., Lentacker, I., De Smedt, S. C., & Dewitte, H. (2019). Three decades of messenger RNA vaccine development. Nano Today, 28.