Four unknown galaxy clusters each potentially containing thousands of individual galaxies have been discovered some 10 billion light-years from Earth.
An international team of astronomers, led by Imperial College London, used a new way of combining data from the two European Space Agency satellites, Planck and Herschel, to identify more distant galaxy clusters than has previously been possible. The researchers believe up to 2,000 further clusters could be identified using this technique, helping to build a more detailed timeline of how clusters are formed.
Galaxy clusters are the most massive objects in the universe, containing hundreds to thousands of galaxies, bound together by gravity. While astronomers have identified many nearby clusters, they need to go further back in time to understand how these structures are formed. This means finding clusters at greater distances from the Earth.
The light from the most distant of the four new clusters identified by the team has taken over 10 billion years to reach us. This means the researchers are seeing what the cluster looked like when the universe was just three billion years old.
Lead researcher Dr. David Clements, from the Department of Physics at Imperial College London, explains: “Although we’re able to see individual galaxies that go further back in time, up to now, the most distant clusters found by astronomers date back to when the universe was 4.5 billion years old. This equates to around nine billion light-years away. Our new approach has already found a cluster in existence much earlier than that, and we believe it has the potential to go even further.”
The clusters can be identified at such distances because they contain galaxies in which huge amounts of dust and gas are being formed into stars. This process emits light that can be picked up by the satellite surveys.
Galaxies are divided into two types: elliptical galaxies that have many stars, but little dust and gas; and spiral galaxies like our own, the Milky Way, which contain lots of dust and gas. Most clusters in the universe today are dominated by giant elliptical galaxies in which the dust and gas has already been formed into stars.
“What we believe we are seeing in these distant clusters are giant elliptical galaxies in the process of being formed,” says Dr. Clements.
Observations were recorded by the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) instrument as part of Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). Seb Oliver, Head of the HerMES survey, said: “The fantastic thing about Herschel-SPIRE is that we are able to scan very large areas of the sky with sufficient sensitivity and image sharpness that we can find these rare and exotic things. This result from Dr. Clements is exactly the kind of thing we were hoping to find with the HerMES survey.”
The researchers are among the first to combine data from two satellites that ended their operations last year: the Planck satellite, which scanned the whole sky, and the Herschel satellite, which surveyed certain sections in greater detail. The researchers used Planck data to find sources of far-infrared emission in areas covered by the Herschel satellite, then cross referenced with Herschel data to look at these sources more closely. Of sixteen sources identified by the researchers, most were confirmed as single, nearby galaxies that were already known. However, four were shown by Herschel to be formed of multiple, fainter sources, indicating previously unknown galaxy clusters.
The team then used additional existing data and new observations to estimate the distance of these clusters from Earth and to determine which of the galaxies within them were forming stars. The researchers are now looking to identify more galaxy clusters using this technique, with the aim of looking further back in time to the earliest stage of cluster formation.
The research involved scientists from the UK, Spain, USA, Canada, Italy and South Africa. It is published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and was part funded by the Science and Technology Facilities Research Council and the UK Space Agency.
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The paper: ‘HerMES: Clusters of Dusty Galaxies uncovered by Herschel and Planck’ is published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society on 12 February 2014. DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt2253
UK-based authors are David Clements, F Braglia, A. Hyde (Imperial College London), E Gonzalez Solares (University of Cambridge), S Oliver, A.J. Smith, L Wang (University of Sussex), I Roseboom (University of Sussex and Edinburgh University) and L. Marchetti (Open University).
About Imperial College London:
Consistently rated amongst the world’s best universities, Imperial College London (http://www.imperial.ac.uk) is a science-based institution with a reputation for excellence in teaching and research that attracts 14,000 students and 6,000 staff of the highest international quality. Innovative research at the College explores the interface between science, medicine, engineering and business, delivering practical solutions that improve quality of life and the environment — underpinned by a dynamic enterprise culture. Since its foundation in 1907, Imperial’s contributions to society have included the discovery of penicillin, the development of holography and the foundations of fiber optics. This commitment to the application of research for the benefit of all continues today, with current focuses including interdisciplinary collaborations to improve global health, tackle climate change, develop sustainable sources of energy and address security challenges. In 2007, Imperial College London and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust formed the UK’s first Academic Health Science Center. This unique partnership aims to improve the quality of life of patients and populations by taking new discoveries and translating them into new therapies as quickly as possible.
About Planck and Herschel:
Planck was an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States, NASA & Canada. Planck was launched on May 14, 2009, and was Europe’s first space mission to study the relic radiation from the Big Bang. It was named after the German physicist Max Planck, whose work on the behavior of radiation won the Nobel Prize in 1918. Planck is an all sky survey mission and its main goal is to study the cosmic microwave background (CMB), but as a by-product it is producing all sky surveys in all its observational bands. Planck was deactivated in October 2013 when the tank of liquid helium used to cool the instruments finally ran dry. Herschel was an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. Herschel was launched in tandem with Planck and its observations finished on April 29, 2014. Scientific work on the data collected by Herschel will continue for many years. With its larger primary mirror and larger detector arrays, Herschel can reach higher angular resolutions and higher sensitivities than Planck, but it is not an all sky survey instrument, with its areal coverage limited to <10% of the extragalactic sky.
The Science and Technology Facilities Council (http://www.stfc.ac.uk) is keeping the UK at the forefront of international science and tackling some of the most significant challenges facing society such as meeting our future energy needs, monitoring and understanding climate change, and global security. The Council has a broad science portfolio and works with the academic and industrial communities to share its expertise in materials science, space and ground-based astronomy technologies, laser science, microelectronics, wafer scale manufacturing, particle and nuclear physics, alternative energy production, radio communications and radar. STFC’s Astronomy and Space Science program provides support for a wide range of facilities, research groups and individuals in order to investigate some of the highest priority questions in astrophysics, cosmology and solar system science STFC operates or hosts world class experimental facilities. It enables UK researchers to access leading international science facilities by funding membership of international bodies including European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL), European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). STFC is one of seven publicly-funded research councils. It is an independent, non-departmental public body of the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS).