Quantum entanglement happens across all black hole event horizons

Simulated view of a black hole in front of the Large Magellanic Cloud (Credit: Alain R. | Wikimedia Commons)

Simulated view of a black hole in front of the Large Magellanic Cloud (Credit: Alain R. | Wikimedia Commons)

Researchers have discovered some new aspects of the life and death of the black holes.

Physical Review Letters published this research.

“Eighty years after Einstein, quantum physics is still so mysterious that there are many different interpretations of its physical meaning. All the interpretations agree on what is going to be observed in any given experiment, but they each tell different stories of how these observations come about,” Christoph Simon with the Department of Physics and Astronomy in the Faculty of Science at the University of Calgary, said in a statement.

In 2012, researchers found the so-called firewall paradox according to which if something moves across the event horizon into the black hole, it would be burned up.

This recent research has removed the paradox by working on quantum information theory in which we study about the light and atoms as the carriers of information. Main information from quantum mechanics  shows weird phenomenon of quantum entanglement across a black hole’s event horizon. Quantum entanglement refers to the special connection between quantum particles. It is one of the biggest things in the quantum mechanics about which Einstein said “spooky action at a distance.”

“Quantum mechanics shows that entanglement can exist across the event horizon, between particles inside and outside the black hole . But should this entanglement ever vanish, a barrier of energetic particles would be created: an energetic curtain (or firewall) would descend around the horizon of the black hole.” Professor Braunstein said in a statement.

“We are the first to show the necessity of entanglement across all black hole event horizons and to consider what happens as black holes age. The greater the entanglement, the later the curtain descends. But if the entanglement is maximal, the firewall never occurs. Indeed, entanglement has long been believed to exist for some types of black holes, taking on exactly this maximum value. Our work confirms and generalizes this claim.” Braunstein added.

Stephen Hawking told about the information flow in black holes for the first time, stating that aging black holes have information about everything they take in. Professor Braunstein added, “When quantum mechanics, and in particular entanglement, are included in the story, Hawking’s prediction holds for the longest time possible. Our results not only back up Einstein’s theory of gravity, but also point to quantum information theory as a powerful tool for disentangling the deep mysteries of the Universe.”

Reference:

Samuel L. Braunstein, Stefano Pirandola, Karol Życzkowski (2013). Better Late than Never: Information Retrieval from Black Holes. Physical Review Letters, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.101301