Cancer and various numbers associated with it

Cancer related numbers

Cancer is a type of illness caused by the presence of malignant tumor. It could have different forms in the body and could spread to other body parts, when it becomes very fatal.

Overall numbers related to cancer:

It has been estimated that there are more than 200 diseases that fall into the category of cancer. More than 50% of cancer cases are related to the lungs, breast, colon and prostate. Researchers have reported that about 30% of laboratory mice and humans have cancer by the end of their lives i.e. 2-3 years in case of mice and 70-80 years in case of humans. It has also been found that 90% or more of the total glucose metabolism is devoted to the energy production in a cancer cell line. This energy production is as opposed to the generation of building blocks. Moreover, there is a 100 fold increase in the glyolytic pathway intermediate metabolites in cancer cells as compared to the differentiated cells. pH of the extracellular tumor is in the range of 6.44 to 6.79.

Fastest growing tumor in humans is in Burkitt lymphoma in which the mean doubling time is 66 (38-116) hours. On the other hand, membrane turnover rate in hairy cell leukemia (HCL) cell is 6 hours.

Nearly 20% of human cancers in the world are caused by viruses.

There are 30% or less than cancers, which are with somatic activating mutations in ras.

There is 1 mM Asparatate intracellular concentration in a human cancer cell line (glioblastoma).

Cervical tumor volume can reach up to the size of 61.5 cm^3 and the tumor shape ratio is 30% oval, 35% lobulated, and 35% complex.

Macropinocytosis response time of dendritic cell to tumor necrosis factor is 24-48 hours. Macropinocytosis is the main form of endocytosis, a cellular process for fluid intake, resulting in a large amount of fluid-phase uptake for many of the cell types. Dendritic cells are immune cells.

p53 related numbers:

p53 is a tumor suppressor protein in humans. About 50% of cancer cases have mutations in the p53 gene. There are 12 distinct expressed p53 isoforms.

Breast Cancer:

If we consider breast cancer than 75-80% of cases are Hormone receptor-positive while 15-20% of cases are ERBB2-positive. ERBB2 is also known as Her-2/neu. This gene is responsible for the production of growth factor receptors. Growth factors are proteins that increase cellular growth and division.

Colon Cancer:

Researchers have found that 85% chromosomal instability (CIN) is related to the sporadic colon cancer while 15% of microsatellite instability (MIN) is related to the sporadic colon cancer. Concentration of p53 in wildtype colorectal cancer cell SW620 is 0.64 (±0.015) nM. Rate of gain or loss of chromosome in colorectal cancer cell is 1% or more per chromosome per generation.

Researchers have found that 50-80% of colitis-associated tumors are found along with allelic deletion of p53.

About 60% of the colorectal cancer cases could spread to the liver.

Lung Cancer:

Researchers have found that the average speed of H69 small cell lung cancer cell is 0.26 μm/min whereas the speed of H1299 human non–small cell lung cancer cell is 10.1±1.6μm/hour for bleached cell and 10.3±1.5μm/hour control cell. H1299 human non–small cell lung cancer cell has the cell cycle time of 22.5±2.6hours for bleached cell and 23.2±2.5hours for control cell.

Liver Cancer:

p53 could be present in the concentration of 0.24±0.015nM in the wildtype liver cancer cell HepG-2. HepG-2 represents human liver carcinoma cell line. These cells have a volume of about 2850 µm^3 and height of 4 μm.

Liver cancer has a biomarker AFP that is found in the concentration of about 500 ng/ml ill adults and <=10 ng/ml in healthy individuals. AFP represents Alpha-Fetoprotein that is a protein normally made by the immature cells in the fetus.

Prostate Cancer:

Citrate concentration in the semen of the patients of prostate cancer is 48 (±7.9) mM.

Source: BioNumbers

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