R is free software for computing and graphics. It is an open source programming language. It uses a common line interface whereas several graphical user interfaces (GUI) are also available for use with R.
It can be operated on a large number of platforms. It has stronger object-oriented programming (OOP) facilities.
Users can do a large number of statistical and graphical techniques such as linear and nonlinear modeling, classical statistical tests, time-series analysis, classification, clustering, and others.
R is an integrated suite of software facilities for data manipulation, calculation and graphical display. It includes
- an effective data handling and storage facility,
- a suite of operators for calculations on arrays, in particular matrices,
- a large, coherent, integrated collection of intermediate tools for data analysis,
- graphical facilities for data analysis and display either on-screen or on hardcopy, and
- a well-developed, simple and effective programming language which includes conditionals, loops, user-defined recursive functions and input and output facilities.
Just like many other languages, R-project supports matrix arithmetic, which is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols or expressions. R’s data structures include scalars, vectors, matrices, data frames (similar to tables in a relational database) and lists. The R object system is extensible and includes objects for, among others, regression models, time-series and geo-spatial coordinates.