Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a gram-positive bacterium responsible for a severe form of diarrhea and other intestinal diseases. Most importantly, it causes infection after the use of antibiotics to treat bacterial infection. It can also cause one of the severe inflammations of the colon i.e. pseudomembranous colitis. According to CDC reports, diarrhea caused by C. difficile is linked to 14000 deaths in America annually.
[hana-code-insert name=’StumbleUpon’ /][hana-code-insert name=’Reddit’ /]Researchers have found that many strains of C. difficile of humans have the ability to survive in the environment and several animal hosts. It can be deactivated by the use of certain antibiotics such as metronidazole, rifampicin and clindamycin.
Recently, researchers have found some of the clinically resistant strain of C. difficile in North America. They have found that 7.9% of C. difficile isolates were resistant to rifampicin. A high proportion of C. difficile were resistant to Clindamycin. Many of the strains were also resistant to Moxifloxacin. Most effective medicine against all types of C. difficile is Metronidazole.
Researchers have found that C. difficile contributes to about 1.5% of total cases of nosocomial diarrhea in India. The cases of C. difficile associated cases change annually such as it were highest in 2001 when it contributes to 11.2% of cases.
In Korea, the cases of C. difficile associated diseases increased from 1.9/10 000 patient admissions (1998–1999) to 8.82/10 000 patient admissions (2006–2007) and more than 85% of cases were caused after antibiotics administration. Similarly, in Singapore the cases have been increased from 1.49 cases per 10 000 patient-days in 2001 to 6.64 cases per 10 000 patient-days in 2006.
Fred C. Tenover, Isabella A. Tickler and David H. Persing, (2012). Antimicrobial Resistant Strains of Clostridium difficile from North America. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, doi: 10.1128/AAC.00220-12
Ekma, Nasyatul; Yee, Loong Yik; Aziz, Rushdan Abdul, (2012). Prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection in Asian countries. Reviews in Medical Microbiology, doi: 10.1097/MRM.0b013e32834e0fc8
Sandra Janezic, Matjaz Ocepek, Valerija Zidaric, Maja Rupnik, (2012). Clostridium difficile genotypes other than ribotype 078 that are prevalent among human, animal and environmental isolates. BMC Microbiology, doi:10.1186/1471-2180-12-48